LEARNING THEORY OF CAREER COUNSELING (Krumboltz, Mitchell, & Gelatt) choice: ▫ Generalization of self derived from experiences and performance in. Major Career Development Theories: Again these include but are not limited to: Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory of Career Choice: John D. Krumboltz. An emancipatory communitarian approach to vocational development theory, research, and . Krumboltz’s learning theory of career choice and counseling.

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W hy is theory important? Theory helps us make sense of our experiences. A solid knowledge base in theory provides a meaningful framework and context for working with clients. It gives you a better understand of particular strategies, counselling approaches and tools; helping you determine how to use them, when to use them and why you use them. Finally, having the ability to use a number of theories and approaches better equips you to determine and meet the particular needs of each individual client.

What follows is a thumbnail sketch of each of the major human development and career development theories identified by the National Standard and Guidelines. The descriptions given below are meant to provide only a preliminary introduction to one or two of orumboltz central components of these important approaches to career development.

They are intended to help you assess your own understanding of career development theory and identify potential areas for further learning and professional development. Common Human Development Models. These include but are not limited to:. Abrahman Maslow is best known for his developmental theory of human motivation.

Skinner is recognized as a leader in the field of behaviourist theory. The response or behaviour produces a consequence and the nature of the consequence either reinforces or weakens the probability of the behaviour occurring again. Using verbal praise and other forms of recognition to encourage youth to continue their job search. Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theory of social development.

The theory describes the eight stages of human development infancy to late adulthoodthrough which every person passes. At each stage of development the person is confronted with and hopefully resolves a new psycho-social issue.

Each developmental stage builds on the successful completion of the earlier stages.

Get the Job

If the issues of the kurmboltz stages are not successfully resolved they are expected to reappear as problems in the later stages. Frankl ; Victor Frankl belongs to the school of existential theory and was the founder of logotherapy. He regarded the search for meaning and an authentic life as the primary human motivation. As free individuals we have a choice on how we will deal with inner conditions and outer circumstances.


We are responsible for our own existence and for finding a purpose or meaning to our lives. Frankl asserted that one can discover meaning through purposeful work, creative pursuits and suffering.

It is important for youth to take responsibility for making their own career choices and to be encouraged to consider careers that will be personally meaningful and fulfilling. Major Career Development Theories: Again these include but are not limited to:. Some of the basic assumptions that underlie this theory are: The closer the match between personal traits and job factors the greater the likelihood for successful job performance and satisfaction. Trait-factor theory has been around for a long time and is still being used by many career practitioners in one form or another.

Many of the aptitude, personality and interest tests and occupational information materials that emerged from this approach have evolved and remain in use today e. An off-shoot of the trait-factor cadeer can be seen in the work of John Holland.

Personalities fall into six broad categories: Most personalities tend to tjeory up to three of the six personality factors.

Personalities can be matched with similar combinations of work environments using a problem-solving approach. Donald Super believed that humans are anything but static and that personal change is continuous. Every individual has potential.

People have skills and talents that they develop through different life roles making them capable of a variety of tasks and numerous thepry. In making a vocational choice, an individual is expressing his or her understanding of self; his thepry her self-concept. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and implement and develop their self-concept.

Self-knowledge is key to career choice and job satisfaction. Career development is life long and occurs throughout five major life stages: Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Disengagement. Each stage has a unique set of career development tasks and accounts for the changes and decisions that people make from career entry to retirement.

These five stages are not just chronological. People cycle through each of these stages when they go through career transitions.

Understanding the ages and related stages of career development assists practitioners to identify where clients are in the career theoryy continuum and suggest appropriate career related goals and activities.

The Big Picture

Krumboltz developed a theory of career decision making and development based on social learning. Career decisions are the product of an uncountable number of learning experiences made possible by encounters with the people, institutions and events in a person’s particular environment.

In other words people choose their careers based on what they have learned. The four main factors that influence career choice are genetic influences, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences and task approach irumboltz e. The consequences chhoice these factors and most particularly learning experiences lead people to develop beliefs about the nature of careers and their role in life self-observational generalizations.


These beliefs, whether realistic or not, influence career choices and work related behaviour. Learning experiences, especially observational learning stemming from significant role models krukboltz.

Positive modelling, reward and reinforcement will likely lead to the development of appropriate career planning skills and career behaviour. Krumboltz saw his theor y as 1 a way of explaining the origin of career choice and 2 a guide to how career practitioners might tackle career related problems. The practitioner starts with understanding how a client came to their career related view of themselves and the world and what is limiting or problematic about this view.

Once this has been established, the practitioner and client identify what career relevant learning experiences, modeling or skill building will help them reframe their view. Constructivist Theory of Career Development is related to existential theory and is more a philosophical framework within which career counselling can be done. Two thinkers associated with this approach are M.

Savickas and Vance Peavy. There are no fixed meanings or realities in the world, there are multiple meanings and multiple realities.

Individuals differ from each other in their construction of events. Two people may participate in the same or similar event and have very different perceptions of the experience. People are self-organizing and meaning-makers. Their lives are ever evolving stories that are under constant revision. To be an empowered or fulfilled person requires critical reflection of the assumptions that account for our daily decisions and actions.

The constructivist career counselling approach is generally about life planning. If you are interested in self-directed study of career development theory numerous resources including full text articles and publications can be found on the web. Here are just a few good sites. International Career Development Library at http: Or contact your local professional association to ask about training and professional development opportunities in your community. The Networking and Support pages provide links to career development professional associations.

A great feature of both databases is that all of this information is searchable by geographical region. Understanding the Career Development Big Picture. No single theory of Career Development is comprehensive. Using a holistic approach to clients krmboltz pulling from a combination of career development theories and strategies.