ISO/IEC specifies the dimensions and locations for each of the contacts on an integrated circuit card of an ID-1 card type. It also provides. ISO describes the physical characteristics of smart chip cards. It includes accommodation of exposure limits for electromagnetic phenomena such as. ISO is one of most important standards in the smart card industry. Parts of ISO specify physical characteristics, dimensions and location of the.
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Introduction To Smart Cards – Page 2. Technical Adviser to Smart Card News. Return to page 1.
The 7816 Standard
Many observers have commented that the widespread use kso Smart Cards is being impeded by the lack of standards. Interoperability is of course the name of the game and is the primary purpose of standards.
The problems of interoperability start at the bottom, in other words with the physical dimensions of the card and the location of the contacts. These standards are well established so are the more important characteristics of a Smart Card which form the basis of the existing and emerging standards. As you move higher in the architecture towards the specification of the application then the problems of interoperability are less relevant since it is not generally necessary to have compatibility between the applications themselves.
The biggest hole in the current standards work is the lack of agreement in the security domain which one might argue is fundamental to the application platform. This standard applies to the ID – 1 identification card specified in Isk and includes cards which may have embossing or magnetic stripes.
While we are all familiar with the use of imprinters to obtain a printed version of the embossed characters on some paper voucher, their viability on an IC card must be questionable. The IC module in a Smart Card is like any other electronic component and is not normally expected to isl hit with a hammer at regular intervals. Even the embossing process itself is mechanically stressful and must raise serious doubts over the appropriate migration strategy.
The physical properties of the contact IC card are referenced against earlier card standards and we will look at each of them in turn. ISO Identification cards – Physical characteristics This standard specifies the physical characteristics of identification cards including card material, construction, characteristics and nominal dimensions for three sizes isk cards ID -1, ID -2 and ID The principal parameters of ISO are the dimensions of the ID -1 card which are defined to be, ISO Identification cards – recording techniques This standard isso in five parts and covers the jso of the magnetic stripe and the card embossing.
This part specifies the requirements for embossed characters on identification cards for the transfer of data by imprinters or by visual or machine reading. This part specifies characteristics for a magnetic stripe, the encoding technique and coded character sets which are intended for machine reading. Part 3 Location of embossed characters on ID -1 cards.
As the title implies, this part of the standard specifies the location of embossed characters on an ID 786-2 card for which two areas are assigned. Area 1 is for the number identifying both the card issuer and the card holder. Area 2 is provided isso the cardholder identification data such as his name and address. Part 4 Location of magnetic read only tracks – tracks 1 and 2. This standard specifies the location of the magnetic material, the location of the encoded data tracks and the beginning and end of the encoding.
Part 5 Location of read – write magnetic track – track 3. This standard has the same scope as part 4 except that it defines the read – write track 3.
ISO Identification cards numbering system and registration procedure for issuer identifers This standard relates to the card identification number or PAN Primary Account Number isp consists of three parts, the issuer identifer number IINthe individual account identifier and the check digit. ISO Identification cards – Financial transaction cards This standard defines the requirements for cards to be used in financial transactions.
It specifies the physical characteristics, layout, recording techniques, numbering system and registration procedures. In particular the is defines more precisely the physical dimensions of the card as follows: The thickness of the card is particularly important ieo Smart Card readers because of the mechanical construction of the card connector mechanism. This device often consists of a movable carriage that positions the card under the connector head while applying the necessary wiping and pressure action.
Variation in thickness or even slight warping of the card can cause communications failure. ISO Design and use of identification cards having integrated circuits with contacts This standard in its many parts is probably the most important specification for the lower layers of the IC card.
The first three parts in particular are well established and allow total physical and electrical interoperability as well as defining the communication protocol between the IC card and the CAD Card Acceptor Device. It should be noted that the thickness dimension does not include any allowance for embossing. More particularly the slot for a card may include an extra indentation for the embossed area of the card.
In effect it acts as a polarisation key and may be used to aid the correct insertion orientation of the card. This 78816-2 an additional characteristic to the magnetic field sensor which operates off the magnetic stripe and is used to open a mechanical gate on devices such as ATMs where some vandal proofing techniques are required. The Part 1 standard also defines additional characteristics that should be met in the manufacturer of an IC card.
These characteristics fall into the following categories: It has to be said that this part of the standard could be improved and there is currently some work taking place in ISO on this very subject. The three most widely used tests applied by fabricators isoo specified in the annex to the standard: While this is certainly one way of comparing cards fabricated by different companies, whether it bears any 7186-2 to the use of IC cards in the field seems debatable.
The bending properties are tested by oso the card on each axis as shown in figure 6. With a periodicity of ixo bendings per isi the card is deflected to 2cm at its centre from the long axis and 1cm from the short axis.
The recommended test requires the card to withstand bendings in each of the four possible orientations i. The standard requires the card to withstand 1, torsions without chip failure or visible cracking of the card. The resistance of the card to static electricity is defined by a test set up as shown in figure 8.
The test voltage is defined to be 1. The specification requires this voltage to be discharged across each of the 7861-2 in both normal and reverse polarity.
ISO/IEC – Wikipedia
The IC should still be operational at the end of the test. One of the issues surrounding the use of the IC card relates to the temperature range for operational use. The word occasional is defined to mean not more than four hours each time and not over times during the life of the card. This part of the standard has taken a lot of effort in order to reach agreement.
Early applications of Smart Cards emanated in France where the Transac magnetic stripes were more central on the card than that eventually defined by ISO Unfortunately the French chip position overlaps the ISO magnetic stripe definition. As a result it was eventually agreed that after a transitional period to the end of the position for the IC connector would be as shown in figure 9. This position is much closer to the longitudinal axis of the card.
We might like to conjecture on which is the better position for the chip in terms of mechanical stress but perhaps we should just settle for agreement. Further problems arose in deciding on which face of the card the connector should be located.
In order to avoid further delay in publishing the standard, two options were allowed to include both the front and back of the card. This anomaly has been a source of irritation and it is now widely agreed that the IC connector should be on the front of the card.
For this purpose the back is defined to be the side with the magnetic stripe. The embossing is defined to be on the front of the card and therefore on the same side as the IC connector. The relative location of these components when present is shown in figure Electronic signals and transmission protocols.
The electronic properties and transmission characteristics of the IC card are fundamental to interoperability. These specifications are defined by ISO as part three of the standard. The principal subjects to be considered are as follows: We have previously discussed the position and definition of the IC connector and have identified eight contacts of which six are currently defined. The power supply to the IC is defined to be between 4. Both of these parameters have problems.
Newer chip fabrication technologies are moving sub micron, 0. These chips may operate with a supply voltage of 3volts which results in lower current consumption.
A current consumption of mA is far too high for modern electronic equipment particularly when the equipment is portable and driven by a battery power supply. 7861-2 IC cards 781-2 a power consumption of between 10mA and 20mA at 3. ETSI in the development of its standards has adopted a far isoo rigorous specification of 20mA maximum for normal use and a 10mA maximum for use in portable equipment. It further defined the concept of sleep mode not covered by ISO where the IC chip can reside in a latent mode preserving volatile memory contents with a maximum power consumption of uA.
Although the integrated circuit could contain its own clock circuit for driving the internal logic, in practice most IC chips are supplied with an external clock by the interface device. The ISO standard aligns with the use of two widely used external clock frequencies, 3. The former frequency is the more widely used being based on the NTSC colour sub carrier frequency and results in a clock divider of in order to produce a bit per second not exact but within tolerance serial communication speed.
The latter 716-2 has a simple divisor of in order to achieve a bit per second communication speed. The standard defines the situation after reset whilst allowing the frequency to be selectively changed by means of protocol type selection. This signal is designed to provide the high voltage required to enable writing to the sio volatile memory. There have been problems in the past with terminals supplying the wrong programming voltage with somewhat drastic effects.
The reset signal is asserted by the interface device and is used to start uso the program contained in the IC ROM. The ISO standard defines three reset modes, internal reset, active low reset and synchronous high active reset. Most microprocessor ICs operate using the active low reset mode where the IC transfers control to the entry address for the iwo when the reset signal returns to the high voltage level.
The synchronous mode of operation is more commonly met with the memory card ICs as used for telephone applications.
ISO part 2 smart card standard
The sequence of operations for activating and deactivating the IC is defined in order to minimise the likelihood of damage to the IC. The activation sequence for the 78816-2 device is defined as follows.
The IC deactivation sequence for the interface device is as follows: