Grounded in naturally-occurring language data and drawing on findings from linguistic pragmatics and social psychology, Jonathan Culpeper. Politeness and Impoliteness Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University) 1. Introduction Thirty or so years ago politeness was a specialist, even somewhat. Impoliteness strategies. Jonathan Culpeper. Uploaded by. Jonathan Culpeper. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the .

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Making and responding to requests in institutional settings. An interruption, for example, imposes on the other and thus may seem typical of negative face threat, but imploiteness interruption may also imply that the person who interrupted did not care to hear what the target was saying i. Should a model of politeness account for impoliteness using the same concepts, or is a completely different model required?

Thus, the speaker has a vested interest in maintaining the hearer’s face, since this will enhance the probability of reciprocal facework. For example, a member of staff at Lancaster University writing to complain about somebody backing into her car in the car park and then disappearing concludes her complaint: People are generally motivated to avoid FTAs, and are willing to incur costs in order to save face Brown Brown and Gilman’s solution was to have a single category of redress in which acts of positive or negative politeness may be mixed, but need not be.

However, it is not as if Brown and Levinson were unaware of cultural differences. Journal of Pragmatics 14 2: Make the other feel uncomfortable – for example, do not avoid silence, joke, or use small talk. An example they give from their data is “Do me a favour”, which they argue is a kind of apology in Brown and Levinson’s terms in so far as there is an admission that the ‘favour’ will impinge on the other negative politenessbut also a kind of reciprocal doing of favours positive politeness.


The terms “positive” and “negative” have nothing to do with being good and bad, but, in the world of Brown and Levinson, relate to, respectively, the positive values claimed by the participant, and the wish not to be imposed upon]: Strategies The strategy in an impoliteness strategy A taxonomy of impoliteness strategies Are the impoliteness strategies valid?

I propose instead that rapport management the management of harmony—disharmony among people entails three main interconnected components: Of course, it should be impoilteness that these problems, especially the first one, do not apply equally to all politeness models it does not apply, for example, to Leech a. This may sound implausible, but Leech is talking about the expression of impolite beliefs.

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Intercultural Pragmatics 4 4: Thus, requests are typically oriented to negative face they typically impose on one’s freedom of action impolitenezs criticisms to positive they typically detract from the positive values one lays claim to. Language, Behaviour, Culture 1 2: As Craig et al.

In contrast, Haugh b understands the discursive approach they articulate to embrace relational work, something which then affords him ample opportunity to point out why their cupeper is incoherent. It is often based on the frequency of interaction.

Politeness and Impoliteness | Jonathan Culpeper –

Still, even with Spencer-Oatey’s more sophisticated framework there is no guarantee that every positive evaluative belief necessarily correlates with politeness attitudes. The other is that some works claim a stake in more than one approach; the groups are not mutually exclusive. But anger lacks a similarly specific emotional opposite associated with politeness. It remains for future research to apply the frame-based approach to other contexts. The surge in politeness studies has had profound effects on the study of pragmatics.


They give the following example, “I’m sorry to say this. What is articulated here is generally a more pragmatic view of politeness. We acquire linguistic politeness from our experience of social interactions e.

For example, amusing somebody is an interpersonal activity that is generally viewed positively, but it is not at all clear that it would normally be considered a matter of politeness.

Field, Margaret Politeness and indirection in Navajo directives.

Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence – Jonathan Culpeper – Google Books

Fraser, Bruce and William Nolan The association of deference with linguistic form. Disassociate from the other culpeped for example, deny association or common ground with the other; avoid sitting together. Furthermore, if “the analyst cannot legitimately attribute meaning, one wonders what, then, does constitute a legitimate role for the analyst” Holmes As far as specific criticisms, the most frequent are twofold.

The distinction between anticipated politeness and inferred politeness is elaborated by Haugh see also Terkourafi Two warnings about strategies need to be issued early: The recontextualisation of impoliteness formulae in socially opposite contexts reinforces socially opposite effects, namely, affectionate, intimate bonds amongst individuals and the identity of that group.

I understand conventionalisation here in the same way as Terkourafi e. These represent communities talking about strategies which they recognise and which have conventional status.

Journal of Greek Linguistics 3: Leech a have made no explicit connection with generalised implicatures, instead discussing implliteness in terms of the recovery of the speaker’s intentions in deviating from Gricean cooperativeness on a particular occasion i.