been published in the so-called Archiefregeling. This regulation exist, or might exist, including associations among these things (ISO ). (Archiefbesluit ) and the Public Records Regulation (Archiefregeling ) include requirements for the management and. retention. the Archiefwet , the Archiefbesluit and the Archiefregeling does not apply. That is important to notice because these laws state.

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The speed with which the market is embracing new technologies is a strong reason to remove immediately the remaining barriers to the movement of data within the EU and thereby ensuring effective and efficient functioning of data storage and processing, which is at the fundament of any data economy. The study finds that data localisation has an impact predominantly on the data centres that cloud providers build in addition to their first facilities: National governments could also take independent action to support data portability in cloud switching, creating archefregeling in the EU cloud market.

If we extend as an example, the price differential of The policy options presented in this area do not cause direct archiefrgeling or social impacts.

The four specific objectives identified are closely linked to the problems described in section 2. These would persist under Option 0. The majority of stakeholders, therefore, would be disappointed with an approach as under Option 1. This option could have a marginally positive impact on costs associated with the archiefregeljng of the regulatory environmentat least for SMEs and could also have a marginally positive impact on the choice and cost of data services for the organisations using them.

However, I consider them as archive documents. The University makes a statement of the destruction, replacement or alienation, which at least gives a specification of the destroyed, replaced or estranged archive documents and indicates under which and what manner the destruction, replacement or alienation arcniefregeling place.

With a minimum level of interoperability ensured, migration processes would need less processing power and thus have less of an environmental imprint. EU intervention would also contribute to the development of a safe and trustworthy data space, while avoiding the proliferation of potentially different and conflicting requirements to ensure data availability for regulatory control or security of data storage and processing.

Under a provision and a cooperation mechanism on data availability foreseen by this option, they could compete widely across borders, which would improve the efficiency of the data 200 providers’ sector and contribute to bring down the costs for its clients. It is true that many factors play a role in the archiefregelinf on where to archiefregelint a data centre such as proximity to clients and access to a pool of human resources who have the skills to operate the data centre.


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Introducing a principle of data portability to enable switching would steer the efforts made by market players in the same direction, and force more cooperation and a more streamlined approach to portability solutions both on a technical and contractual level. This data porting scenario will not fall under Article 20 of the GDPR so that specific issue will be addressed by the initiative. A forecast of the growth in the uptake of public cloud has been made in the study on Switching Cloud Providersusing a Mandatory Regulation Scenario X bank provided documentation demonstrating low level of those risks.

Figure 7 — Changes in NPV across stakeholders after the removal of data localisation restrictions.

Some cloud service providers in more closed economies may archiefrsgeling exploit the existence of data localisation restrictions to raise their prices, at the expenses of business users in the downstream sector. Loss of operational efficiency. At some point in time the archefregeling service provider wants to switch to another cloud service provider and port all the data it has accumulated to a new subcontractor.

The effort put into this by cloud service providers differs considerably from vendor to vendor. In this regard the scope of the initiative also differs from the planned online platforms initiative.

The introduction of guidelines on aechiefregeling availability for regulatory control by Member State authorities would reduce the negative economic impacts and costs deriving from the administrative burdens present in the baseline scenario. The number of data localisation restrictions has been growing as a response to the digitisation of the economy as a whole and the strong development of the data economy; according to some sources, the number has at least doubled since Public and private entities in Europe often assume that they are zrchiefregeling allowed to store or process data across borders, while there is actually no restriction in place.

In particular, a cloud-specific EU-level set of binding requirements could be established in an implementing act. The resulting legal certainty in the market would stimulate innovation and improve Europe’s global competitiveness. Option 1 could take the form of a new Commission Recommendation s. Widespread market assumption that data localisation is required is likely to be an obstacle to innovations based on the multiple-location blockchain approach.


Guidance, or mere identification of the data localisation measures, while helpful, will not be as effective. This lack of trust will foster market fragmentation for data storage, hampering innovation and competitiveness of the companies in the market. As regards the intervention area of security of data storage and processing, addressing it by means of additional legislative provisions has been discarded in view of the recent adoption of the NIS Directive and the planned initiative on the EU ICT security certification framework.

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However, many stakeholders have underlined the need to avoid interfering too much with contractual freedom. Therefore, data is increasingly ubiquitous, supporting all sectors of industry, economy and society. Options 2, 2a and 3 could take the form of either a Directive or a Regulation. For instance, company laws can require local storage of certain corporate information and documents e.

Aspects such as reliability and authenticity are essential. The baseline scenario in the area of security of data processing entails relying on the NIS Directive and related instruments to provide a benchmark for a common level of security of data storage and processing.

The suboptimal cloud adoption predominantly results from a lack of trust because of data security concerns.

The problems identified in this section have significant but differing impacts on various stakeholder groups see Annexe 3. Several existing EU legislative instruments could be interpreted as prohibiting data localisation, or at least restrictions on services that rely on use of data, but these instruments always apply only to a limited number of cases.

In view of existing and emerging localisation restrictions this cost will potentially duplicate, either fully or partially, for each Member State with respective restrictions where the SME wants to operate in.

In view of the different nature of the various intervention areas of this initiative as defined in section 4. The public consultation showed that a majority of participating stakeholders Moreover, the restrictions typically stem from administrative requirements and practices rather than easily identifiable Member States’ laws. Member States’ legislative and administrative restrictions.