ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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It provides significantly enhanced coverage of body fluids, amniotic fluid, feces, CSF, and metabolic diseases, particularly in the areas of anatomy and physiology, function, and recent advances in testing. The aim of screening is early identification of likely patients by examination of large groups of the population.

Urine test strip – Wikipedia

A positive test for leukocyte esterase normally indicates the presence of bacteria and a positive nitrite test although it is not always the case. Retrieved 13 March Due to its low molecular weight, albumin is the major serum protein found in the plasma, the normal urinary albumin content is low because the majority of albumin presented in the glomerulus is not filtered, and much of the filtered albumin is reabsorbed by the tubules.

Self-monitoring with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state. Vegetable peroxidase and bacterial enzymes, including an Escherichia coli peroxidase, may also cause false-positive reactions.

dd Any deterioration in liver function reduces its ability to process the recirculated urobilinogen. Blood may be present in the urine either in the form of intact red blood cells hematuria or as the product of red blood cell destruction, hemoglobin hemoglobinuria. Therefore, chemical tests for hemoglobin provide the most accurate mean for determining the presence of blood. False-negative reactions can result when urine with a high specific gravity contains crenated red blood cells that do not lyse when they come in contact with the reagent pad.


The balance is maintained through the controlled excretion of acidic hydrogens in the form of ammonia ions, monohydrogenated phosphateweak organic acids and through the reabsorption of bicarbonate through glomerular filtration in the convoluted tubules of the nephron. Treatment monitoring with the aid of urine test strips allows a health professional to check on orrina results of the prescribed therapy, and if necessary to introduce any changes into the course of therapy.


When hemolytic disorders occur the amount of unconjugated bilirubin that is present in the blood increases causing an increase in hepatic excretion of conjugated bilirubin, resulting in increased amounts of urobilinogen that in turn causes an increase in reabsorption, recirculation and renal excretion.

The determination of urinary pH has two main objectives, one is diagnostic and the other is therapeutic.

This applies particularly to diabeticswhere the idea of self-monitoring of the metabolic status determinations of glucose and ketones is self-evident. Decreased reactivity may also be seen when formalin is used as a preservative or when the hypertension medication captopril or high concentration of nitrite are present. The presence of strong oxidising agents or formaldehyde can cause false positives.

At a pH level of 3, both indicators appear yellow in the absence of protein. Specific kidney and urinary tract diseases that can be identified include: Reagent strip tests can detect concentrations as low as five red blood cells per microliter; however, care must be taken when comparing these figures with the actual microscopic values, because the absorbent nature of the pad attracts some of urine.

Higher numbers indicate urinary infection.

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It is possible to use an ammonia sulphate precipitation test in order to distinguish analisiw hemoglobinuria and myoglobinuria. Lab on a Chip. Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react change color when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample.


Glucose concentrations vary in an individual, and a healthy person can present with transitory glucosuria after a meal high in sugars; therefore the most representative analisjs come from samples obtained at least two hours after food is eaten.

In many cultures urine was once regarded as a mystical fluid, and in some cultures it is still regarded as such to this day.

Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic orinaa, while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine. The molecules with the greatest mass contribute more to the measure of specific gravity than smaller molecules. Retrieved 14 March Both contain an acid buffer to maintain the pH dee a constant level. The detection limit of a test is that concentration, at which the test starts to turn from negative to positive.

A urine test strip showing positive for blood can also indicate hemoglobinuriawhich is not detectable using a microscope due to the lysis of red blood cells ee the urinary tract particularly in alkaline or dilute urineor intravascular hemolysis. The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and remains in the intestine.